Innerpeffray - an ancient Chapel - the oldest lending Library in Scotland PLUS a Roman Ford and Road !
Although Innerpeffray is tucked away by the banks of the Earn east of Crieff and is now a quiet back water - it has a vibrant past dating from the Roman invasion in the 1st century AD right up to date . This unique gem is an essential visit when you come to Strathearn ! Read on !
(the following account of the Library is reproduced from the Innerpeffray Library wewbsite with grateful acknowledgement -http://www.innerpeffraylibrary.co.uk)
The original library was "partly in the west end of the chapel of Innerpeffray and partly in that little new house lately built by me at the east end of the kirk yard." Making books available to ordinary people free of charge was unprecedented. Madertie wished the library and school to benefit the community "in time coming" and leaving them with a legacy of 5000 Scottish Merks charged his successors with the responsibility.
In 1739 Robert Hay Drummond inherited the Innerpeffray estate and responsibility for the Library and School. He raised the funds and commissioned architect Charles Freebairn to design and build a new Library building immediately adjacent to the Chapel. This handsome Georgian edifice still houses the library today
By the nineteenth century the school buildings were 'dilapidated' and a new School and Schoolmasters house were completed in 1846. Pupils came from the surrounding farms and settlements and the school was still in operation until 1946.
The Borrowers' Register is perhaps the Library's most valuable book, a handwritten record all the local people to who came to choose a book, and take it home to read. Today, families from all over the world find their ancestors in the Register, often in their own handwriting, and can hold the books they borrowed.
View from the Library over the Earn towards Crieff
St Mary's Chapel- pre Reformation built in 1507 by John ,1st lord Drummond
Innerpeffray Chapel, also known as St Mary's Chapel, stands on the east bank of the Rive Earn a little over three miles south east of Crieff. It occupies a site of historical importance, where the line of defensive watch towers built by the Romans along the Gask Ridge during their first foray into Scotland crossed the River Earn.
The first reference to a church at Innerpeffray dates back to 1365. Nothing remains of this earlier church except, perhaps, the altar which still stands against the wall at the east end of the chapel
The lands in the area later passed into the hands of the Drummond family. The chapel you see today was built in 1507 by John, 1st Lord Drummond. As well as paying for the chapel, he paid for four chaplains to pray for the wellbeing of their benefactor and his family, both in life and in the afterlife.
By 1542 the chaplains serving the chapel had formed a "college", in effect a small religious community, and the church had become what is known as a "collegiate church". Its role remained very much as before: a place of worship for the lord and his family and retainers, and a place where the college of priests could pray for the souls of the Drummonds. The new status of the church seems to have been part of Lord Drummond's development of Innerpeffray as a home for one of his younger sons. The following year, 1543, saw the building of nearby Innerpeffray Castle, now an inaccessible ruin.
As originally built, there seems to have been a sacristy on the north side of the chapel. The western third of the chapel formed a small nave screened off from the larger choir at the east end, where the layfolk would have worshipped. A laird's loft was put in place over the east end of the nave, facing west. The larger choir was reserved for the use of the college of chaplains, and was fitted with stalls along both sides. A very unusual feature was the arch at the west end of the chapel, dividing the nave from what is thought to have been an alcove. At some point a room has been inserted in the upper part of the alcove, and traces of the highly decorative painting of the ceiling below still remain.
After the Reformation of 1560, the chapel survived by being converted into a family burial vault for the Drummonds. By 1680 the estate was in the hands of David Drummond, 3rd Lord Madertie. He was a renowned scholar who had built up a collection of 400 books in English, Latin and a range of European languages. These he kept in the chapel until they were rehoused in 1762 in a library built immediately to the west of the chapel by his descendent Robert Hay Drummond, who at the time was Archbishop of York. The following year it opened as Scotland's first free public lending library.
The chapel today is a fascinating example of a collegiate church which avoided falling into disuse after the Reformation. Drummond family crests and memorials adorn the walls, while the discreet medieval altar still sits against the east wall.
Today the alcove at the west end is home to one of the most magnificent old gravestones you are likely to find anywhere in Scotland. And also one of the most poignant. This is the Faichney monument. It was carved by John Faichney, a mason, and commemorates his wife Joanna, who died in 1707 and no fewer than ten of their children who had died before her. The couple are carved on the head of the stone, while the columns on either side of the body of the stone carry small figures depicting each child. The stone originally stood in the churchyard, but has been moved into the chapel to protect it from the elements.
The Faichney Stone
The Roman Road
Archaeologists have known for a number of years that a well preserved road cutting adjacent to Innerpeffray library was almost certainly of Roman origin. A dig was organised in June 2004 funded by the Perth & Kinross Heritage Trust. It coincided with the Exhibition being held that month in the Library “Crieff from 1745 “. The Library itself sits atop an eroded “drumlin “(a hillock formed by glacial deposits) besides a sheer cliff overlooking the Earn. The theory was that this road was constructed by the Romans to bring traffic up from the crossing of the river at the old ford connecting with the road in and around Parkneuk further northwards. The Romans had a fort at Strageath on the south bank of the Earn and this was part of the road system linking then Gask Ridge watch towers and fortlets.
The initial survey levelled the area and discovered that the road had a gradient of about 1:5.7 which would have allowed the passage of wheeled traffic from the bottom to the top of the cutting. Wheel ruts were discovered when the top soil was removed. Excavations failed to reveal any suitable deposits of datable carbon or pollen or other organic material. The diggers did find a small piece of 18th century glazed pottery as well as a small piece of medieval green glazed pottery. Conclusions as to the originality of the road were difficult to arrive at. No Roman remains were uncovered .It is likely that this stretch of road was an integral part of the local system of communications back as far as the medieval days long before the Turnpike Acts of the 18th century and the bridge building in the area which significantly altered the route pattern that was existing .
Why then are we to believe that this road was constructed by the Romans? The line was , as noted above , part of the chain of the Gask Ridge defences . Secondly the manner of construction was typically Roman with an engineering style that was in advance of that found later on in these parts. Calculation indicated the extent of the engineering work carried out. In excess of 2 000 tons of material had been removed and a durable hard core bedding lay. The gradient was gentle, indicating an engineering technique that was too sophisticated for periods up until the 18th century. The only known complex road building carried out in Scotland between the Roman occupation and the arrival of General Waid in the 18th century was carried out by the Cistercian monks who were skilled in such matters ( Hoffman .2004 ) The nearest Cistercian abbey was at Couper Angus and there appears no evidence of their involvement at Innerpeffray . There is evidence that the road was in use during the Tryst at Crieff in the 17th and 18th centuries. To quote Hoffman:
“Rather more can be said of the cuttings likely later history. The early modern period brought increased traffic to this part of Strathearn. In 1672 and Act of Parliament (***Note: this refers to the Scottish Parliament in
as it was prior to 1707) granting the earl of Edinburgh the right to establish a large cattle
market (The Tryst) at Crieff. This was held in mid October and quickly became
the chief Tryst in Perth
with reports of 30 000 beasts changing hands in one week, to be exported to
land s to the south. While the majority of cattle were brought in via the Sma’
Glen and the glens further west, cattle from Angus and Aberdeenshire tended to
be driven from Scotland
via the “ Perth Old Gallows Road
“. Described in 1715/1716 as “ the road to Stirling “ this leads out of
Perth , past Long Causeway , Burghmuir
Road , the Old Gallows Road at Glen Devon Farm and continues today as a line of
hedgerows , field tracks and short roads past the old farm of Gateside , East
and West Cultmalundie , Westmuir , Clathymore , Clathy , Roundlaw ,
Ardunie and Shearerston . It eventually crossed
the Earn at Innerpeffray, with further branches leading to Crieff and Kinkell.
As the name suggests , it appears to have run past the Gallows to the west of
Perth , whilst the 19th century “ Notes of the Statute Labour
Trustees “ already describe it as old and confirm its use as a drove road . ”
The importance of Innerpeffray in the road system in the pre Statute Labour Days of the late 18th century can be seen by reference to old Perthshire maps by cartographers Moll and Stobie. The old Roman road or street running parallel to the Gask Ridge watch towers became an important road to
. It followed the fort line before turning north near Windygates to reach the
old Perth Gallows Road
near Tibbermore . According to Hoffman the road appears to have degenerated
into a mere track east of Gask House. According to the Statistical Account for
1773 for the Parishes of Gask and Trinity Gask it ” saw little use despite being
in a good state “ .
The Innerpeffray road may have seen an upturn in traffic when the Tryst moved to
Falkirk in the 1760s but this was brief . It had ceased to be part of a major route when
the Crieff bridge over the Earn opened in 1740- 1741 . In 1758 , Maitland
described the Roman road from Strageath fort as “ descending the eminence and , crossing the Earn , mounting the hill
to the in the
neighbourhood of which it became the common road ”. The fact that he was
able to cross the and that the route still appears on Stobie’s map of 1783 ,
suggest that the ford and the cutting were still usable at this time . His
statement that the common road did not begin until he reached the village might
imply that this was no longer a major crossing point . If so , this would fit
in well with Moll’s map , produced a decade earier in 1745. This still marks
the village of
Innerpeffray Old Gallows Road
but shows Kinkell , not Innerpeffray , as the Earn crossing point . Kinkell was
originally a ferry crossing ( as Innerpeffray became ) but in 1793 was replaced
with a toll free bridge . This cut travel times and drovers ‘ costs still
further and would have had an impact on the importance of Innerpeffray .
Roman Road became
redundant as with the advent of the Turnpike and Toll Roads drovers and other
travellers were avoiding paying toll s by taking these old routes . Pressure
was brought upon the adjoining proprietors to close non statute roads . The Old Gallows Road
and a series of branch roads were formally closed in 1813 “on application by Lord Kinnoul and Robert Smyth of Methven ” .